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LSAT—India. It consists of four, 35-minute sections of multiple-choice questions—one Analytical Reasoning section, one Reading Comprehension section, and two Logical Reasoning sections.
Logical Reasoning Questions
Logical reasoning questions evaluate your ability to understand, analyze, criticize, and complete a variety of arguments. The arguments are contained in short passages taken from a variety of sources, including letters to the editor, speeches, advertisements, newspaper articles and editorials, informal discussions and conversations, as well as articles in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences.
Each logical reasoning question requires you to read and comprehend a short passage, then answer one or two questions about it. The questions test a variety of abilities involved in reasoning logically and thinking critically. These include:
- recognizing the point or issue of an argument or dispute;
- detecting the assumptions involved in an argumentation or chain of reasoning;
- drawing reasonable conclusions from given evidence or premises;
- identifying and applying principles;
- identifying the method or structure of an argument or chain of reasoning;
- detecting reasoning errors and misinterpretations;
- determining how additional evidence or argumentation affects an argument or conclusion; and
- identifying explanations and recognizing resolutions of conflicting facts or arguments.
The questions do not presuppose knowledge of the terminology of formal logic. For example, you will not be expected to know the meaning of specialized terms such as “ad hominem” or “syllogism.” On the other hand, you will be expected to understand and critique the reasoning contained in arguments. This requires that you possess, at a minimum, a college-level understanding of widely used concepts such as argument, premise, assumption, and conclusion.
Read each question carefully. Make sure that you understand the meaning of each part of the question. Make sure that you understand the meaning of each answer choice and the ways in which it may or may not relate to the question posed.
Do not pick a response simply because it is a true statement. Although true, it may not answer the question posed.
Answer each question on the basis of the information that is given, even if you do not agree with it. Work within the context provided by the passage. The questions do not involve any tricks or hidden meanings.
Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
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Question 1 of 25
1. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Economist: Every business strives to increase its productivity, for this increases profits for the owners and the likelihood that the business will survive. But not all efforts to increase productivity are beneficial to the business as a whole. Often, attempts to increase productivity decrease the number of employees, which clearly harms the dismissed employees as well as the sense of security of the retained employees.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the economist’s argument?
Question 2 of 25
2. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
All Labrador retrievers bark a great deal. All Saint Bernards bark infrequently. Each of Rani’s dogs is a cross between a Labrador retriever and a Saint Bernard. Therefore, Rani’s dogs are moderate barkers.
Which one of the following uses flawed reasoning that most closely resembles the flawed reasoning used in the argument above?
Question 3 of 25
3. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
A century in certain ways is like a life, and as the end of a century approaches, people behave toward that century much as someone who is nearing the end of life does toward that life. So just as people in their last years spend much time looking back on the events of their life, people at a century’s end _______.
Which one of the following most logically completes the argument?
Question 4 of 25
4. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Consumer: The latest Chintan Reportsuggests that Omkar prepackaged meals are virtually devoid of nutritional value. But the Chintan Report is commissioned by Dilip Foods, Omkar’s largest corporate rival, and early drafts of the report are submitted for approval to Dilip Foods’ public relations department. Because of the obvious bias of this report, it is clear that Omkar’s prepackaged meals really are nutritious.
The reasoning in the consumer’s argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument
Question 5 of 25
5. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Scientist: Earth’s average annual temperature has increased by about 0.5 degrees Celsius over the last century. This warming is primarily the result of the buildup of minor gases in the atmosphere, blocking the outward flow of heat from the planet.
Which one of the following, if true, would count as evidence against the scientist’s explanation of Earth’s warming?
Question 6 of 25
6. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
An undergraduate degree is necessary for appointment to the executive board. Further, no one with a felony conviction can be appointed to the board. Thus, Manu, an accountant with both a bachelor’s and a master’s degree, cannot be accepted for the position of Executive Administrator, since he has a felony conviction.
The argument’s conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
Question 7 of 25
7. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Ethicist: The most advanced kind of moral motivation is based solely on abstract principles. This form of motivation is in cotrast with calculated self interest or the desire to adhere to societal norms and conventions.
The actions of which one of the following individuals exhibit the most advanced kind of moral motivation, as described by the ethicist?
Question 8 of 25
8. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Proponents of the electric car maintain that when the technical problems associated with its battery design are solved, such cars will be widely used and, because they are emission-free, will result in an abatement of the environmental degradation caused by auto emissions. But unless we dam more rivers, the electricity to charge these batteries will come from nuclear or coal-fired power plants. Each of these three power sources produces considerable environmental damage. Thus, the electric car _______.
Which one of the following most logically completes the argument?
Question 9 of 25
9. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Although video game sales have increased steadily over the past 3 years, we can expect a reversal of this trend in the very near future. Historically, over three quarters of video games sold have been purchased by people from 13 to 16 years of age, and the number of people in this age group is expected to decline steadily over the next 10 years.
Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument?
Question 10 of 25
10. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Double-blind techniques should be used whenever possible in scientific experiments. They help prevent the misinterpretations that often arise due to expectations and opinions that scientists already hold, and clearly scientists should be extremely diligent in trying to avoid such misinterpretations.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the argument?
Question 11 of 25
11. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
It is now a common complaint that the electronic media have corroded the intellectual skills required and fostered by the literary media. But several centuries ago the complaint was that certain intellectual skills, such as the powerful memory and extemporaneous eloquence that were intrinsic to oral culture, were being destroyed by the spread of literacy. So, what awaits us is probably a mere alteration of the human mind rather than its devolution.
The reference to the complaint of several centuries ago that powerful memory and extemporaneous eloquence were being destroyed plays which one of the following roles in the argument?
Question 12 of 25
12. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Suppose I have promised to keep a confidence and someone asks me a question that I cannot answer truthfully without thereby breaking the promise. Obviously, I cannot both keep and break the same promise. Therefore, one cannot be obliged both to answer all questions truthfully and to keep all promises.
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its reasoning to the argument above?
Question 13 of 25
13. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Standard aluminum soft-drink cans do not vary in the amount of aluminum that they contain. Fifty percent of the aluminum contained in a certain group (M) of standard aluminum soft-drink cans was recycled from another group (L) of used, standard aluminum softdrink cans. Since all the cans in L were recycled into cans in M and since the amount of material other than aluminum in an aluminum can is negligible, it follows that M contains twice as many cans as L.
The conclusion of the argument follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
Question 14 of 25
14. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
A cup of raw milk, after being heated in a microwave oven to 50 degrees Celsius, contains half its initial concentration of a particular enzyme, lysozyme. If, however, the milk reaches that temperature through exposure to a conventional heat source of 50 degrees Celsius, it will contain nearly all of its initial concentration of the enzyme. Therefore, what destroys the enzyme is not heat but microwaves, which generate heat.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
Question 15 of 25
15. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
A new government policy has been developed to avoid many serious cases of influenza. This goal will be accomplished by the annual vaccination of high-risk individuals: everyone 65 and older as well as anyone with a chronic disease that might cause them to experience complications from the influenza virus. Each year’s vaccination will protect only against the strain of the influenza virus deemed most likely to be prevalent that year, so every year it will be necessary for all high-risk individuals to receive a vaccine for a different strain of the virus.
Which one of the following is an assumption that would allow the conclusion above to be properly drawn?
Question 16 of 25
16. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Tarun: : Researchers at a local university claim that 61 percent of the information transferred during a conversation is communicated through nonverbal signals. But this claim, like all such mathematically precise claims, is suspect, because claims of such exactitude could never be established by science.
Silpa: While precision is unobtainable in many areas of life, it is commonplace in others. Many scientific disciplines obtain extremely precise results, which should not be doubted merely because of their precision.
The statements above provide the most support for holding that Shilpa would disagree with Tarun about which one of the following statements?
Question 17 of 25
17. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Hospital executive: At a recent conference on nonprofit management, several computer experts maintained that the most significant threat faced by large institutions such as universities and hospitals is unauthorized access to confidential data. In light of this testimony, we should make the protection of our clients’ confidentiality our highest priority.
The hospital executive’s argument is most vulnerable to which one of the following objections?
Question 18 of 25
18. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Modern science is built on the process of posing hypotheses and testing them against observations—in essence, attempting to show that the hypotheses are incorrect. Nothing brings more recognition than overthrowing conventional wisdom. It is accordingly unsurprising that some scientists are skeptical of the widely accepted predictions of global warming. What is instead remarkable is that with hundreds of researchers striving to make breakthroughs in climatology, very few find evidence that global warming is unlikely.
The information above provides the most support for which one of the following statements?
Question 19 of 25
19. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Historian: The Land Party achieved its only national victory in Banestria in 1935. It received most of its support that year in rural and semirural areas, where the bulk of Banestria’s population lived at the time. The economic woes of the years surrounding that election hit agricultural and small business interests the hardest, and the Land Party specifically targeted those groups in 1935. I conclude that the success of the Land Party that year was due to the combination of the Land Party’s specifically addressing the concerns of these groups and the depth of the economic problems people in these groups were facing.
Each of the following, if true, strengthens the historian’s argument EXCEPT:
Question 20 of 25
20. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Geetha: Munaf claims that the Aasa Nagar Neighbors Association overwhelmingly opposes the new water system, citing this as evidence of citywide opposition. The association did pass a resolution opposing the new water system, but only 25 of 350 members voted, with 10 in favor of the system. Furthermore, the 15 opposing votes represent far less than 1 percent of Aasa Nagar’s population. One should not assume that so few votes represent the view of the majority of Aasa Nagar’s residents.
Of the following, which one most accurately describes Geetha’s strategy of argumentation?
Question 21 of 25
21. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Driver: My friends say I will one day have an accident because I drive my sports car recklessly. But I have done some research, and apparently minivans and larger sedans have very low accident rates compared to sports cars. So trading my sports car in for a minivan would lower my risk of having an accident.
The reasoning in the driver’s argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that this argument
Question 22 of 25
22. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Editorialist: News media rarely cover local politics thoroughly, and local political business is usually conducted secretively. These factors each tend to isolate local politicians from their electorates. This has the effect of reducing the chance that any particular act of resident participation will elicit a positive official response, which in turn discourages resident participation in local politics.
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the editorialist’s statements?
Question 23 of 25
23. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Philosopher: An action is morally right if it would be reasonably expected to increase the aggregate well-being of the people affected by it. An action is morally wrong if and only if it would be reasonably expected to reduce the aggregate wellbeing of the people affected by it. Thus, actions that would be reasonably expected to leave unchanged the aggregate well-being of the people affected by them are also right.
The philosopher’s conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
Question 24 of 25
24. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
Car companies solicit consumer information on such human factors as whether a seat is comfortable or whether a set of controls is easy to use. However, designer interaction with consumers is superior to survey data; the data may tell the designer why a feature on last year’s model was given a low rating, but data will not explain how that feature needs to be changed in order to receive a higher rating.
The reasoning above conforms most closely to which one of the following propositions?
Question 25 of 25
25. QuestionCategory: Reasoning
During the nineteenth century, the French academy of art was a major financial sponsor of painting and sculpture in France; sponsorship by private individuals had decreased dramatically by this time. Because the academy discouraged innovation in the arts, there was little innovation in nineteenth century French sculpture. Yet nineteenth century French painting showed a remarkable degree of innovation.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the difference between the amount of innovation in French painting and the amount of innovation in French sculpture during the nineteenth century?